Ultimate Kratom Guide: ​Types, Strains, Extract, Dosage & More

kratom guide

Kratom is a naturally occurring, evergreen tree that grows best in rich soil in hot and humid environments that do not have cold winters. It belongs to the Rubiaceae family of flowering plants and its botanical name is Mitragyna speciosa and is cultivated in Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Bali, Vietnam, and Borneo.

Kratom PlantThe attention this plant has stirred comes from its leaves. They are said to possess opiate- and cocaine-like effects. Consumption in low doses results in energizing (stimulant) effects whereas consumption in high doses results in pain-relieving (analgesic) and sleep-inducing (sedative) effects. Kratom, however, is not an opiate. It does, however, work on the same receptors as opioids.

Other Names Kratom Goes By

Biak-Biak, Katawn, Kratum, Mitragynine Extract, Cratom, Kedemba, Madat, Nauclea, Gratom, Ketum, Maeng Da Leaf, Nauclea speciosa, Ithang, Krathom, Mambog, Thang, Kakuam, Kraton, Mitragyna speciosa, Thom.

Origins

Origin of Kratom

Kratom is indigenous to Southeast Asia, the Philippines, and New Guinea. Thailand is considered its original home. It has been used for centuries for medicinal, therapeutic, recreational, and religious purposes.

Historical records show that northern Malaysians and southern Thai laborers like fisherman, farmers, and rubber-tappers used it much like coffee is used today. They either chewed, smoked or made tea with fresh or dried leaves to fight fatigue and increase productivity.

In Thailand, it was also used in socio-religious ceremonies and to treat various medical conditions, such as morphine dependence. In rural areas, it was used to self-treat medical issues like diabetes, diarrhea, fever, and pain and used it as a wound poultice

When opium and heroin become scarce in Malaysia, it was used as a substitute. Ancient  Buddhists were also known to have used it as a healing tool and a meditation tool.

The first Western descriptive record of Kratom is attributed to a Dutch botanist named Pieter Willem Korthals. Korthals was the official botanist for the Dutch East India Service, a trade and shipping company, between 1831 and 1836. It is said he assigned the plant to the Mitragyna genus because the leaves and the stigmas of the flowers resembled the shape of a bishop’s mitre. In 1895, a British surgeon known as George Darby Haviland confirmed Korthals description.

Also in that year, Edward Morell Holmes, a British botanist, lecturer, and curator of the Materia Medica Museum of the Pharmaceutical Society 1872-1922 noted its use as an opium substitute. Two years later in 1897, Henry Nicholas Ridley, an English botanist, geologist and naturalist documented that Kratom’s ability to act as a substitute for opium could be used to help people find relief from opium addiction.

How Kratom Works on the Body 

How Kratom Works on the Body

The phytochemicals (active compounds found in plants) found in Kratom are designed to interact with opioid receptors that are part of the opioid system that controls pain, reward, and addictive behaviors.

There are three classes of opioid receptors – μ, δ, and κ (mu, delta, and kappa) and results show that mitragynine and  7-hydroxymitragynine, the two main alkaloids in Kratom, are partial agonists at the human mu-opioid receptor and competitive antagonists at the kappa and delta opioid receptors. When the alkaloids bind with the opioid receptors they release neurotransmitters that create the dose-dependent effects Kratom is known for.

At low doses, the alkaloids of Kratom strains bind to the Kappa opioid receptors and the neurotransmitters produce stimulating effects and in high doses, they tend to attach to MU receptors and the neurotransmitters produce analgesic effects.

Benefits of Using Kratom

The large number of active compounds and the variety of available strains have contributed Kratom’s versatility as a herbal supplement.

1. Kratom as an Analgesic (pain relief)

Person in pain

Ethnobotanist, pharmacognosist, and author Daniel J. Siebert once described Kratom as one of the most effective herbal analgesics, second only to opium.

The two main alkaloids responsible for the analgesic properties of Kratom are mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine. They activate the same opiate receptors that control pain, reward, and addictive behaviors as prescribed opiate medications do. They reduce pain perception and the intensity of pain signals reaching the brain and influence the regions of the brain involved in regulating emotion subsequently lessening the effects of painful stimuli. The presence of other alkaloids like Corynanthiedine (an opiate antagonist) safeguards users from the side effects associated with opiate use.

Users report using Kratom for pain relief that is the result of headaches or migraines, Multiple Sclerosis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Osteoarthritis, damaged Muscles, Scoliosis, Neck Soreness or Strain as well as for injuries like broken bones, scrapes, and burns.

Dosing for pain relief is moderate to high depending on the severity of pain and the following strains in the red vein variety have been shown to be most effective.

  • Indo 
  • Borneo 
  • Bali 
  • Maeng Da 

2. Kratom for Opiate Withdrawal

Opiate Withdrawal

Historically in South East Asia, Kratom was used to wean addicts off heroin. For many users, the inability to cope with opiate linked withdrawal systems is what drives them back to using. Users say that using Kratom helps to ease opiate withdrawal symptoms like restless legs, diarrhea, bone and body aches, fatigue, and irritability.

Also, as alkaloids found in Kratom are partial agonists unlike opiates that are full agonists, they create less intense interactions and may be used to ease opiate dependence.

Dosing for opiate withdrawal is moderate to high depending on the severity of pain and the following strains in the red vein variety have been shown to be most effective.

  • Indo 
  • Maeng Da 
  • Bali 
  • Borneo

The use of Kratom for opiate withdrawal is not without controversy though. Proponents for its use in this regard point to the numerous success cases while detractors point to its addictive properties that may result in dependency.

3. Kratom for Energy and Focus

Kratom for Energy and Focus

As Kratom belongs to the same plant family as coffee, it’s stimulating effects are not surprising. The alkaloids increase blood flow to the brain and activate adrenergic receptors that boost your energy and enhance motivation, focus, and concentration.

Dosing for energy and focus is low and the following strains in either green or red vein colors have been shown to most effective.

  • Thai and Maeng Da – These two strains are best for vigor, focus and memory enhancement.
  • Malaysian – This strain is best is used for memory and focus.
  • Borneo – The White Vein strain is best used for an energy boost

4. Kratom as an Immune System Booster

Immune System

Herbal supplements have a long history of being used to boost the immune system enabling it to fight off infections ranging from a cold to more serious conditions like cancer. It can also help to reduce their duration and intensity.

Kratom has been shown to boost the immune system through four main alkaloids collectively known as Immunostimulants. They are – Mitraphylline, Isopteropodine, Isorhynchophylline, and Isomitraphylline. It also has anti-viral and anti-bacterial effects and is a potent anti-oxidant helping the body flush out toxins, vital in preventing significant illnesses such as colon cancer.

It can also restore insulin production for individuals who have type 2 diabetes, regulate blood pressure for hypertensive individuals, and its anti-mutagenic component reduces the risk of cancer

Dosing for immune system support is low to moderate and the following strains in the green vein variety are most effective.

  • Borneo
  • Malaysian

5. Kratom as a Nootropic

Kratom as a Nootropic

Nootropics are compounds or supplements like Ginkgo Biloba and Ginseng that are known to improve cognitive function.

As a nootropic, Kratom boosts concentration and memory recall, improves in mood and motivation an helps you manage stress. Its antioxidant properties offer protection against neurodegenerative conditions

Dosing for nootropic effects is low to moderate to create more stimulating than sedating effects and the following strains in either the green or red vein variety are the most effective.

  • Thai 
  • Maeng Da 
  • Malaysian

6. Kratom for Euphoria

Euphoria

Some of the alkaloids found in Kratom are known to bind to the opioid receptors and stimulate the sympathetic nervous system, which in turn sends a signal to release endorphins. Endorphins are hormones that once triggered reduce your perception of pain and also trigger a positive feeling in the body described as euphoria.

Endorphins are hormones that once triggered reduce your perception of pain and also trigger a positive feeling in the body described as euphoria.

Users of Kratom in a euphoric state are highly stimulated and have a calm state of mind. They are able to focus better and concentrate on complex tasks. They also feel a boost to stamina and endurance.

Dosing plays an important role in getting the desired euphoric effect.

  • 1 gram – 3 grams produces both energetic and euphoric effect.
  • 4 grams – 6 grams produces strong euphoric effect.
  • 7 grams – 10 grams produces more sedating effects and less euphoric effect.

The strains that are most effective at producing euphoric effects are the following in either the green or white vein variety.

  • White Borneo 
  • Maeng Da
  • Malay

How is Kratom Consumed

Options for consuming Kratom include powders, capsules, extracts or tinctures. Choice is usually based on personal preference stemming from factors like ease of use and convenience.

Kratom Powder

Kratom Powder

Kratom powder is made from dried pulverized leaves. The powder can then be consumed as is and the toss and wash method is the most common way to do so. This involves scooping a spoonful of kratom powder into your mouth and then drinking a glass of water to wash it down.

For many, the powder has a bitter earthy taste so it can also be mixed with things like chocolate milk, orange juice, pomegranate juice or coffee to make it taste better. Dosing Kratom power on an empty stomach is recommended for effects to be felt sooner.

Kratom Capsules

Kratom Capsules

Kratom capsules are either veggie or gelatin capsules that contain Kratom powder. Veggie capsules are pricey and are made of hypromellose, cellulose, and purified water. They are gluten-free, vegan, non-GMO, and free of any preservatives and chemicals and dissolve quicker than gelatin capsules. Gelatin capsules, on the other hand, are more affordable than veggie capsules but they are made from animal by-products which and are prone to allergic reactions.

Capsules are popular as they can be consumed discreetly and its easier to keep track of dosage amounts. Effects take longer to be felt though as the body has to dissolve the capsule first before it can get access to the powder.

Capsules come in different sizes based on the amount of powder they contain

  • Size ‘000’ – 1 gram of Kratom per capsule
  • Size ‘00’ – 0.735 grams of Kratom per capsule
  • Size ‘0’ – 0.5 grams of Kratom per capsule
  • Size ‘1’ – 0.4 grams of Kratom per capsule
  • Size ‘2’ – 0.3 grams of Kratom per capsule

Kratom Tinctures

Kratom Tincture

Kratom tinctures are a liquid form of the herbal supplement made by extracting its active compounds from its leaves using food grade alcohol. Tinctures are potent as they contain a full spectrum of the alkaloids and their effects are felt relatively quickly when consumed via the sublingual method. This involves placing a few drops under your tongue and holding them there for up to 30 seconds.

Tinctures can be pricey and may cause adverse reactions from solvents used to make them finding their into the final product. They must also be stored in amber or blue colored bottles to protect it from being oxidized by light.

Many people also tend to make their own as they hard to come by and relatively straightforward to make.

Kratom Extract

Kratom Extract

Kratom extract is made by boiling a large number of fresh Kratom leaves or powder until a soft, brown substance called resin is created. To boil the leaves either water is used which results in a water-based extract or a polar and nonpolar solvent is used resulting in what is called resin extract.

Extracts are usually made in different potencies from 5x, 10x, 15x, 20x, 25x and 50x and can be used to brew it into a tea, cook it in recipes, eaten raw, or mix it into a smoothie. They can also be further processed into a powder, tincture, or resin.

Dosage Amounts

There is no official recommended dosage amount for Kratom. One reason for this is that it is yet to be subjected to rigorous testing that is used to establish that value. Establishing the dosage amount is further challenged by the number and varying ratio content of the active compounds in each strain.

In addition to the above, factors like gender, age, and condition being treated influence dosage amounts. Establishing your correct dose will, therefore, involve some trial and error. Two things should be kept in mind as you begin the process. The first is to start with smaller amounts and build up. This will allow the body to adjust to the supplement and it also helps you gauge how effective the dosage is.

The second is to alternate between strains so as not create a tolerance for anyone particular strain. This will require testing out different strains with similar properties.

In general, the following has been noted when it comes to Kratom dosage amounts:

  • Low doses (1 gram to 5 grams)  produce stimulant-like effects predominate approximately within 10 minutes. Effects last 60 to 90 minutes and include increased energy and alertness, decreased appetite, increased sociability and heightened libido.
  • Moderate to high doses (5 grams t0 15 grams) produce effects that include anxiolytic (anti-anxiety), euphoria, analgesia (pain reduction), drowsiness, cough suppression and reduction in symptoms of opioid withdrawal.
  • High doses (16 grams to 25 grams) produce highly sedating effects describe by many as too strong. This amount is not recommended for inexperienced users.

Side Effects of Kratom

Side effects experienced when using Kratom can either be short-term or long-term. Short-term side effects may include the following:

  • Nausea
  • Itching
  • Sweating
  • Dry mouth
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea
  • Increased urination
  • Loss of appetite
  • Feelings of agitation, irritability, or uneasiness
  • Drowsiness
  • Tachycardia (abnormally fast heartbeat that feels like your heart is racing or fluttering)
  • Loss of muscle coordination in the arms or legs
  • Hallucinations
  • Seizures
  • Liver damage

Long-term side effects are the result of prolonged use of high doses of kratom  and may include the following:

  • Weight loss
  • Insomnia (difficulty falling asleep or difficulty staying asleep)
  • Hyperpigmentation (dark spots) on the skin, especially on the cheeks
  • Fatigue
  • Constipation
  • Nausea
  • Appetite loss
  • Frequent urination
  • Dry mouth
  • Tremors or shaking
  • Seizures
  • Psychosis (seeing or hearing things that others do not see or hear)

Withdrawal Symptoms

Prolonged daily use of potent Kratom strains especially increases the potential for addiction and dependence. Users trying to break their addiction or dependence may experience the following physical and psychological withdrawal symptoms.

Physical withdrawal symptoms may include the following:

  • Muscle pain, cramps, and body aches
  • Shakiness or tremors
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Abdominal pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Sweatiness or hot flashes
  • Fever
  • Insomnia

Psychological withdrawal symptoms may include the following:

  • Nervousness
  • Restlessness
  • Sadness or depressed mood
  • Anger

Kratom Strains

Kratom is grouped by strain or what you could call types. The strains are named after the region from which they originated, cultivated or exported from. These strains are further differentiated by vein color which is the color of the vein running down the center of the leaf. There are three vein color classifications – Red, Green, and White.

Strains by Color

Red Vein Kratom 

Red Vein Kratom

The Red Vein Kratom strain is the best selling and most widely available strain. It has a higher than average amount of 7-Hydroxymitragynine alkaloid making it a very effective painkiller especially, for chronic pain conditions.

This strain also produces the highest calming and sedating effects that beginners may prefer.

Red vein varieties have different effects and properties. Some strains such as  Red Thai and Red Vein Borneo have sedative effects while others like Red Sumatra produce elated mood effects.

Green Vein Kratom 

Green Vein Kratom

The Green Vein strain combines the best of what the Reid Vein and White Vein have to offer. It is sedating effects are less than those of Red Vein strain and its stimulating effects are less than those of the White Vein Strain.

It’s also recommended as a good strain for first time Kratom users and a must have strain to alternate with to reduce dependence and avoid building tolerance. Additionally, thanks to its balanced effects, it is often used to ease social discomforts.

White Vein Kratom 

White Vein Kratom

The White Vein strain is known for its stimulating and positive mood-enhancing effects that boost energy, prevent fatigue, and increase focus and concentration especially, for complex activities.

This strain is most often the go-to pick for those looking to replace their caffeine habits with something similar but that does not come with the same side effects like jitters.

Strains by Region

1. Bali Kratom

Bali Kratom is considered to have the most classic opiate-like effects of all the strains and is recommended for first-time users. It gets its name from the Indonesian island of Bali and today can be found growing in Thailand and Malaysia.

It’s the fastest growing strain and the easiest to produce. For a long time, those two factors made it the dominant strain available in the market. An extremely low price point in comparison to other strains and a high potency content make it the most popular strain amongst users.

It has large, dark-colored leaves that bear both analgesic and sedative properties. When taken in low doses it has a euphoric effect and can boost energy levels. In high doses, it gives a more relaxing effect. It can also modify appetite, provide relief from opiate withdrawal and addiction, and act as an anxiolytic.

Once consumed effects can be felt within 15 – 30 minutes. This quick onset, however, results in effects lasting no more than 4 hours. As a result, it’s therefore common to find this strain blended with a more long-lasting strain like Indo kratom.

Bali Kratom is available in  Green Vein Bali, Red Vein Bali, and White Vein Bali strains.

  • Green Vein Bali – Reduces stress and anxiety and provides pain relief but without sedating effects but is less potent than Red Vein or White Vein strains
  • Red Vein Bali – Ideal for pain-relief, though it does also have a strong sedating effect.
  • White Vein Bali – Calms without sedating

2. Maeng Da Kratom

Maeng Da Kratom is a specially bred strain and is considered one of the strongest strains of Kratom. Its origin is unclear but has been narrowed down to Thailand and Indonesia. In Thai, Maeng Da is the name given to an edible water beetle called Leothocerus Indicus. When translated from Thai, the name means “Pimp,” so some do refer to this strain as “Pimp Grade.”

This strain has dark colored leaves whose color intensifies when crushed or powdered. It has analgesic properties but is known best for its energizing and stimulating properties that mitigate sedative effects of strains this potent. Its been shown to reduce symptoms of depression, enhance stamina and enthusiasm, improve memory and concentration and prevent fatigue.

Effects are known to last for up to 8 hours and come on in phases. The first effects can be felt with 10 – 15 minutes then a euphoric peak is usually attained after 45 minutes. Sedative effects are usually felt after 2 hours.

Maeng Da Kratom is available in Red Vein Maeng Da, White Vein Maeng Da and Green Vein Maeng Da strains.

  • Red Vein Maeng Da – More sedating and euphoric compared to Green Vein and White Vein Maeng Da strains
  • Green Vein Maeng Da – Improves emotional balance and overall mood.
  • White Vein Maeng Da – Energizing and refreshing and often used to treat insomnia and promote restful sleep

3. Borneo Kratom

Borneo Kratom is named after the island of Borneo, the third-largest island in the world and the largest in Asia. The strain is considered to be one of the most sedating strains due to high concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine. Its medicinal qualities are said to include pain relief, addiction treatment, mood improvement, stress, anxiety, and insomnia relief, and insomnia relief, and temporary depression relief.

Borneo Kratom is available in Red Vein Borneo (RVB/BRV), Green Vein Borneo (GVB), and White Vein Borneo (WVB) strains

  • Red Vein Borneo – Extremely pleasurable relaxation, soothing effect, and calming effects and mood enhancing qualities.
  • Green Vein Borneo – Produces balanced painkiller and euphoric, and  stimulating effects
  • White Vein Borneo – Produces milder painkiller and euphoric and also a powerful stimulant.

4. Malaysian Kratom

Malaysian Kratom is more often referred to as Malay and is named after the Southeast Asian country Malaysia. This strain is known for significant and impressively long-lasting energetic (focus, stimulation, stability, endurance) and euphoric effects when consumed in low doses and sedative effects when consumed in high doses.

It is available in Red Vein Malay Green Vein Malay and White Vein Malay strains an since this is a potent strain, dosing is best kept in the low to moderate range

  • Red Vein Malaysian – This strain though not commonly available produces high anxiety and pain relief effects.
  • Green Vein Malaysian – This strain, sometimes referred to as Super Green Malaysian, comes from large sized leaves that are said to have over 40 alkaloids making this strain quite potent. It is said to have moderate to high pain relief and focus effects, high anxiety relief and mood enhancing qualities, and a balanced energy effects.
  • White Vein Malaysian – This is the most stimulating and energetic strain of Malaysian Kratom even when consumed at high dosages

5. Indo Kratom

Indo Kratom is the primary strain of Indonesia. Its popularity among users stems from the fact that when compared to other strains, it has a low incidence of side effects. Its effects include pain relief, abatement of opiate withdrawal syndrome, relaxation, Sedation, and mood enhancing.

Indo Kratom is available in Green Vein Indo (sometimes referred to as Super Green), Red Vein Indo, and White Vein Indo.

  • Red Vein Indo – This strain produces analgesic, mood-lifting and sedative effects
  • Green Vein Indo – This strain produces potent pain killing and relaxing effects but very mild stimulating effects.
  • White Vein Indo – This strain produces analgesic effects and has the highest stimulating effect of all three vein colors

6. Thai Kratom

Thai Kratom is named after the Southeast Asian country of Thailand and is known for energy, stimulation, mood lifting, increased focus and pain relief effects. It has a low instance of side effects so it is a popular strain.

Thai Kratom is available in Red Vein Thai, Green Vein Thai and White Vein Thai strains.

  • Red Vein Thai – Produces potent pain relieving  and sedating effects
  • Green Vein Thai – Produces balanced pain relief, energy boost, and mood enhancement effects
  • White Vein Thai – Produces high stimulating effects and moderate euphoric ones.

Enhanced Kratom Strains

Enhanced Kratom strains are strains whose potency has been intensified or improved by the addition of Kratom extract or pure alkaloids. Minimal doses are required to experience their effects and side effects like nausea, headaches, and dizziness among others are common with large doses.

These strains are popular with those who have built up a tolerance to regular ones but are usually priced on the higher end and hard to come by making them unsuitable for daily use.

1. Ua Enhanced Indo Kratom

Ua Enhanced Indo Kratom varieties have roughly 1500mg of pure alkaloids added to the existing kratom strain. Users report that the effects produced are an intense sensation of euphoria and severe feelings of sedation.

2. Enhanced Maeng Da Kratom

Enhanced Maeng Da Kratom varieties are made by adding 99% pure Maeng Da alkaloids to natural strains. Users report that this strain produces mood enhancement, relaxation, analgesic, stimulation, and emotional and psychological support effects. This strain comes with a high price tag and is not readily available on most online sites.

3. Enhanced Bali Kratom

Enhanced Bali Kratom is a refined version of traditional Bali strain made by adding resin extracted from large Kratom leaves to the natural strain. Users report that this strain raises mood levels, increases energy, helps control stress control and allows for personality building and social development.

4. Enhanced Red Horned Kratom

Enhanced Red Horned Kratom is marketed as a slow strain in terms of how long it takes for the effects to be experienced. This, however, is coupled with the fact that effects are longlasting, sometimes up to 8 hours. Users report that this strain gives them a mild to a substantial energy boost. a positive sense of well-being, increase mood effects, reduced anxiety and increased relaxing sensations.

Legal Status of Kratom

Legal Status of Kratom

Currently, Kratom is illegal to buy, possess or use in Australia, Denmark, Finland, Israel, Lithuania, Malaysia, Myanmar, Poland, Romania, South Korea, Sweden, Thailand, United Kingdom. In Finland, Denmark, Romania, Germany, and New Zealand, Kratom isn’t completely banned but its legal status remains uncertain.

Currently in the United States, Kratom is sold as an unregulated herbal supplement, however, it is illegal to buy, possess or use it in the following states.

  • Alabama – Kratom is listed as a Schedule 1 controlled substance
  • Arkansas – Kratom is listed as a controlled substance
  • Indiana – Kratom is defined as a synthetic drug and is banned
  • Tennessee – Kratom is listed as a controlled substance
  • Vermont – Kratom is listed as a regulated drug making it “unlawful to manufacture, possess, have under his or her control, sell, prescribe, administer, dispense, or compound .”
  • Wisconsin- Primary alkaloids in kratom are listed as a Schedule 1 drug thereby making kratom illegal
  • Rhode Island – Mitragynine is listed as a controlled substance therefore making kratom illegal.

In addition, it is illegal for members of the United States Armed Forces to use kratom.

In states where Kratom is permitted, certain cities and counties may subject it to other requirements that either make it completely illegal or legal subject to certain restrictions. For instance,

  • Legal in California but illegal in San Diego due to local ordinance.
  • Legal in Florida but illegal in Sarasota County
  • Illinois – it’s illegal to sell to minors
  • New York – age restriction of 21 years and older in certain areas.

Things to Consider When Buying Kratom

Online shopping

The growing popularity of Kratom has led to a rise in the number of manufacturers. First-time users may find themselves overwhelmed by all the variety and may struggle to make the best choice for their personal needs. Following is what you should consider when buying Kratom.

1. Know the source of your Kratom

Kratom strains are identified by the region where it’s sourced and by vein color. The region also indicates what type of effects the strain produces To ensure that the strain you purchase will result in the effect you desire you need to make sure that you know where it was sourced from.

2. Know why you are using Kratom 

With Kratom, there isn’t one strain suitable for all people or for all conditions. It’s therefore important to know the condition you are aiming to treat or the effect you wish to create before you start shopping. Not only will this save you money but it will also save you time by helping you narrow down which particular strain you should focus on.

3. Buy only from a licensed and reputable seller 

Kratom is currently not subject to rigorous regulations. Unscrupulous manufacturers or sellers looking to make quick money tend to take advantage of this and cut corners. Therefore before buying Kratom you must perform your own due diligence to make sure that you only buy from licensed and reputable sellers who offer quality Kratom strains.

4. Buy more than one strain

Alternating between strains is a recommended way to avoid building tolerance and addiction to Kratom when the option to limit use is not possible due to severe symptoms. Therefore if you are planning to use Kratom for an extended period of time, buy more than one strain.

5. Check for Kratom lab testing

Reviewing lab testing reports especially from third party, FDA licensed labs helps you confirm that purity levels of the Kratom as well as the quantity of alkaloids present. These reports should either be available on the company’s website or on request. If none is available find another seller.

Kratom’s Active Constituents

Kratom Profile

Kratom contains alkaloids, terpenoid saponins, flavonoids, glycosides, and various polyphenols. Alkaloids are the main active ingredients. They are found in varying amounts in the different strains making some better suited to treating particular conditions compared to others.

Mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine are the main two alkaloids responsible for Kratom’s stimulating or relaxant effects.

1. Mitragynine

Mitragynine, chemically known as 9-methoxy-corynantheidine, is an indole-based opioid-receptor agonist (a substance which initiates a physiological response when combined with a receptor) and the most abundant alkaloid found in Kratom. It has analgesic, antitussive (anti coughing), anti-diarrheal and sedative effects.

High doses result in more pain relief and low doses are more stimulating. It also has antitussive (anti coughing), anti-diarrheal and sedative effects.

Total alkaloid profile concentration: 12% – 75%

2. 7-Hydroxymitragynine

7-Hydroxymitragynine is a terpenoid indole alkaloid. It is said to be 20 times more potent than mitragynine and 17 times more potent than morphine. It has an analgesic effect on the body but since it’s only a partial agonist its effects are less mild than those of morphine that is a full agonist.

Total alkaloid profile concentration: Less than 2%

3. Speciogynine

Speciogynine is the third most abundant alkaloid found in Kratom. It modulates intestinal smooth muscle function producing a relaxing effect.

Total alkaloid profile concentration: 6.5% to 7.5%

4. Isomitraphylline

Isomitraphylline is a primary stimulant of the immune system (immunostimulant) and it also has anti-leukemic effects.

Total alkaloid profile concentration: Less than 1%

5. Isomitrafoline

Isomitrafoline has a similar chemical structure to Isomitraphylline. It is an auxiliary stimulant of the immune system.

Total alkaloid profile concentration: Less than 1%

6. Corynantheidine

Corynantheidine is also known as rauhimbine and is related to ajmalicine. It is a subsidiary antagonist opioid receptor and has anti-hypertensive effects.

Total alkaloid profile concentration: Less than 1%

7. Isorhynchophylline

Isorhynchophylline is a mainstream stimulant of the immune system. It acts on cardiovascular and central nervous systems diseases including hypertension, brachycardia, arrhythmia, and sedation, vascular dementia, and amnesia.

Total alkaloid profile concentration: Less than 1%

8. Isopteropodine

Isopteropodine is an active stimulant of the immune system. It has neuroprotective effects and also exhibits antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

Total alkaloid profile concentration: Less than 1%

9. Ciliaphylline

Ciliaphylline has anti-tussive and analgesic effects. It is also a mild analgesic and sedative and helps reduce diarrhea.

Total alkaloid profile concentration: Less than 1%

10. 9-Hydroxycorynantheidine

9-Hydroxycorynantheidine has analgesic effects. When paired with 7-Hydroxymitragynine, it amplifies the effects of its pain relieving ability.

Total alkaloid profile concentration: Less than 1%

11. Mitraphylline

Mitraphylline has anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, anti-amnesic, and Vasodilator effects. It also has anti-proliferative effects which prevent or retard the spread of cells, especially malignant cells.

Total alkaloid profile concentration: Less than 1%

12. Ajmalicine

Ajmalicine is also known as δ-yohimbine or raubasine. It is antiaggregant which means it decreases platelet aggregation and inhibit thrombus formation and is therefore used in the treatment of high blood pressure. It also has cerebro-circulant, anti-adrenergic, sedative, and anticonvulsant effects and can relax vascular smooth muscles

Total alkaloid profile concentration: Less than 1%

13. Rhynchophylline

Rhynchophylline is chemically related to mitragynine. It has anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory effects and can act as a vasodilator.

Total alkaloid profile concentration: Less than 1%

14. Corynoxine A

Corynoxine A is a dopamine mediator responsible for the improving mood and reducing anxiety.

Total alkaloid profile concentration: Less than 1%

15. Corynoxine B

Corynoxine B is also a dopamine mediator that and serves to enhance the effects brought about by Corynoxine A

Total alkaloid profile concentration: Less than 1%

16. Epicatechin

Unlike the above, Epicatechin is an antioxidant flavonoid. It is also found in green tea and cocoa. Its pharmacological effects include, anti-mutagenic, anti-leukemic, anti-oxidant, anti-viral and anti-diabetic. It also helps decreases Myostatin that has adverse effects on muscle growth and it can also improve brain and heart health.

Total alkaloid profile concentration: Less than 1%

17. Paynantheine

Paynantheine is an indole alkaloid and acts as a smooth muscle relaxer.

Total alkaloid profile concentration: 8.6% to 9%

18. Tetrahydroalstonine

Tetrahydroalstonine has hypoglycemic properties that can be used to stabilize blood glucose levels. It also has an anti-adrenergic effect useful for improving energy levels and reducing the negative effects of stress and anxiety.

Total alkaloid profile concentration: Less than 1%

19. Mitrafoline

Mitrafoline is an oxindole alkaloid that has vasodilation, antihypertensive, muscle relaxant, anti-amnesic, and anti-leukemic effects.

Total alkaloid profile concentration: Less than 1%

20. Akuammigine

Akuammigine is an indole alkaloid that acts as a potent opioid receptor agonist and has anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.

Total alkaloid profile concentration: Less than 1%

21. Speciofoline

Speciofoline is a mild opioid receptor agonist with antitussive and analgesic effects.

Total alkaloid profile concentration: Less than 1%

22. Stipulatine

Stipulatine is also referred to as rotundifoline. It is an oxindole alkaloid that acts as a mild-moderate opioid receptor agonist and has sedative and antioxidant effects.

Total alkaloid profile concentration: Less than 1%

23. Mitraversine

Additional research is

Total alkaloid profile concentration: Less than 1%

NOTE: Total alkaloid profile concentration percentages are based on mean derivative research data. They are not meant to represent absolute information in all samples.

 

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